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  • br In conclusion treatment with the TL extract blocked Treg


    In conclusion, treatment with the TL extract blocked Treg recruit-ment into PC. This phenomenon seems to be the main pathological mechanism for avoiding host immunity, via downregulation of Treg-related genes and A 83-01 of cytokines in tumor and spleen cells. Additionally, Tl extract showed cytotoxicity against pancreatic tumor cells. As the result, chemo preventive activity of TL extract could be because of cytotoxicity through the intracellular alternation in a tumor cell as well as changes micro environment near tumor cells. Our finding was corroborated by some phenotypic characteristics such as tumor size. Besides, TL contained β-carotene, which is regarded as a phyto-chemical with anticancer properties. Taken together, our data suggest that TL (developed by breeding to increase the concentration of car-otenoids) could be a natural agent for prevention or alleviation of cancer especially PC at an early stage.
    Ethical statement
    All the experiments and procedures were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals, and the protocol was approved by the Chung-Ang University’s IACUC of the Laboratory Animal Research Center.
    Declaration of Competing Interest
    The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
    This work was supported and funded by Jeil Seed Bio Co., Ltd.
    Tuan, P. A., Kim, J. K., Lee, J., Park, W. T., ... Park, S. U. (2012). Analysis of carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Experimental and Clinical Sciences  Journal of Functional Foods 58 (2019) 301–310
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
    Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of a green tea (Camellia sinensis) polysaccharide on prostate cancer
    a Department of Urology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410005, P.R. China
    b Department of Surgery, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410005, P.R. China
    Article history:
    Green tea polysaccharide
    Prostate cancer
    In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (GTP), with a molecular weight of 7.0 × 104 Da, was isolated from Green tea, which was only composed of glucose. The antitumor effects of GTP on prostate cancer (PC) cell line along with the possible mechanism was examined. First, we investigate the potential role of microRNA-93 (miR-93) in PC progression. Our results showed that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in human PC tissues and several PC cell lines, and its overexpression was correlated with poor survival in PC patients. Furthermore, functional analysis showed that miR-93 overexpression promoted the migration, invasion and proliferation of PC-3 cells transfected with miR-93 mimics, while its knockdown displayed an opposite result in DU145 cells fol-lowing miR-93 inhibitor transfection. Additionally, in vivo tumorigenic studies on nude mice confirmed that miR-93 mimic treatment accelerated the growth of PC-3 xenograft tumors. As expected, GTP (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) inhibited growth of PC-3 cells via inducing apoptosis, which was achieved by elevation of bax/bcl-2 ratio and caspae-3 protein expression, as well as a decrease of miR-93. Thus, miR-93 may be a potential therapeutic target by GTP for PC therapy.
    1. Introduction
    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy in the male population, and ranks the third leading cause of cancer related death among males worldwide [1]. In recent years, the morbidity of PC in China continues to rapidly grow [2]. Although early diagnosed and non-metastatic localized PC can be treated by either surgical resection or radiation therapy [3], a substantial proportion of the cancer cases de-velop castration-resistance and advanced metastasis, thus causing the man death [4]. Despite the significant improvement in detection rate of early-stage PC due to measurement of serum prostate-specific anti-gen (PSA), no consensus regarding whether routine PSA testing effec-tively reduces the risk of death from PC were met by medical and scientific communities [5]. Meanwhile, the biological molecular mecha-nism underlying PC remains largely elusive. Thus, clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PC development and metastasis, as well as developing effective biomarkers for early diagnosis, are highly needed for the prevention and treatment of PC.