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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology
    journal homepage:
    Antiproliferative activity of ionic liquid-graviola fruit extract against human T breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines using flow cytometry techniques
    Djabir Daddiouaissaa, Azura Amidb,∗, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashia, Fazia A.A. Fuada, AhmedA.M. Elnoura, Mohamad A.K.M. S. Epandyc
    a Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM), P. O. Box 10, Gombak, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    b International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), Level 3, KICT Building, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Gombak, 53100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    c Adikafirdaus Resources, Lot 24, Jalan Klebang Selatan, 2/5 Kampung Tersusun, Batu 6 Klebang Selatan, 31200, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
    Breast cancer
    Ionic liquid
    Flow cytometry
    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants have been used for ages by indigenous communities around the world to help humankind sustain its health. Graviola (Annona muricata), also called soursop, is a member of the Annonaceae family and is an evergreen plant that is generally distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Graviola tree has a long history of traditional use due to its therapeutic potential including Colcemid anti-in-flammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticide and cytotoxic to tumor cells.
    Aim of the study: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects and apoptotic events of the ionic liquid extract of Graviola fruit (IL-GFE) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their cytokinetics behaviour to observe their potential as a therapeutic alternative in cancer treatment.